support-infill post disaster housing SIPODH

Taking necessary precautions for disasters to come seems to be a vital issue as people are hit by disasters without initial warning. Initial efforts after disaster hits, concentrate on life rescuing immediately followed by sheltering victims. Sheltering needs can be grouped in two stages. First being temporary shelter, second being the permanent shelter. Immediate production of temporary shelter is important. In production of permanent shelter, user needs, user identity and economy are main points to consider. This study provides an example for post-disaster housing.

Following, 3-stepped approach is proposed in this study.

  1. Emergency shelter
  2. Permanent shelter, basic structures
  3. Permanent shelter, infill

Emergency shelter is a shared space constructed rapidly after the disaster. It is considered to be constructed largely by the inhabitants of the area who are most likely to be untrained for construction and who are in a state of shock due to the disaster. It is designed to be easily and rapidly constructed from prepared components by and for 10-16 disaster struck families. Wood is proposed as the material for emergency shelter for ease of transportation of materials, re-usability of the material and construction methods and labor. Wood being a relatively light material to handle, can be transported to the site easily, details for assembly are simple easy to handle. All components can be color-coded. Process for this stage is an organized self-help. The vertical elements-the columns- are made of four 5×20 planks that are 300, 360 and 420 cm in height. The horizontal elements are 5×30 joists that are 300 and 420 cm in span. The planning module chosen is 330 cm and the structural pattern in plan is based on rotational symmetry. The components will arrive at the site, predrilled with necessary hardware. Pressure treated or otherwise impregnated wood is attached to the lower part of the two vertical planks. Through the connections, 2-dimensional frame is created. The frame is lifted up and is taken to its location. Four of these frames come together and are bolted to each other to form a column and a beam system. After the major elements of the structural system are erected, secondary joists are hung to primary ones. Plywood sheets 120×240 and 120×60 are nailed to the joists as floors. Facade components are sandwiches consisting of plywood sheets consisting of plywood sheets (exterior) and gypsum board (interior) with rigid insulation in between. Facade elements 120 cm wide without openings and 90cm wide with openings are bolted to the joists. A pre-patterned fabric, laced down to the rafters, is proposed as the roof membrane. The temporary shelter can be a square as well as rectangular in plan.

The second stage, also in an organized self-help effort is the provision of basic structures immediately surrounding the emergency shelters. The permanent housing develops around the temporary shelter. The area of the temporary emergency shelter is planned to become a semi-private atrium of each permanent housing cluster. This master plan should become part of the pre-disaster planning efforts. Basic structures are the services, kitchen, bathroom facilities plus a room. Three different lot types are proposed with areas (65.34 m2, 87.12 m2, 98.01 m2) for permanent shelter. Each type has three variations in the ratio and location of the open space (courtyards) and enclosed space. The structural material proposed for the permanent housing is concrete. It is proposed that the infrastructure and the structural system (foundations, columns and slabs) of the housing clusters are provided in an organized process.

The third stage is a self-help effort by the inhabitants to develop their houses according to their requirements and economical capabilities. The ‘infill’ and the amount of enclosed space will be accomplished individually, giving the user the opportunity of decisions in all subsequent stages. The permanent housing can be developed up to two stories. Even in the maximum growth, private open space is provided for each house. Infill can be provided in the pre-provided structural system giving opportunity for variation and reflection of user identity.

Variations in the location of the courtyards and cluster of the dwelling groups offer the potential for different solutions and much flexibility as well as certain restrictions. The housing plans, the example of a cluster and the configuration of clusters shown, emphasize the basic idea that can be developed in various other ways.